International Center for Multimorbidity and Complexity


Original Publications


  • Schmitz-Grosz K, Sommer-Meyer C, Berninger P, Weiszflog E, Jungmichel N, Feierabend D, Battegay E. A Telemedicine Center Reduces the Comprehensive Carbon Footprint in Primary Care: A Monocenter, Retrospective Study. J Prim Care Community Health. 2023
    This study investigates how a telemedicine center can reduce the overall carbon footprint in primary care. It is a retrospective study conducted at a single center that highlights the environmental benefits of telemedicine, including decreased travel and reduced use of healthcare facilities. The results indicate significant reductions in carbon emissions, suggesting that wider implementation of telemedicine could be beneficial for both healthcare delivery and environmental sustainability.

  • Blatch Armon D, Buhayer A, Dobretz K, Meinlschmidt G, Battegay E. Clinical practice guidelines for cardiovascular disease: how is depression addressed? Protocol for a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2023
    This is the outline of a protocol for a systematic review that will examine how clinical practice guidelines for cardiovascular disease address depression. The study acknowledges the intricate link between cardiovascular diseases and depression, aiming to identify helpful operational information about this relevant disease-disease interaction in current guidelines. The ultimate goal is to improve holistic patient care by integrating mental health considerations into cardiovascular disease management.

  • Güth U, Junker C, Schafroth M, McMillan S, Schneeberger AR, Elfgen C, Battegay E, Weitkunat R. ICD-Based Cause of Death Statistics Fail to Provide Reliable Data for Medical Aid in Dying. Int J Public Health. 2023
    The issue addressed in this investigation is the reliability of cause of death statistics derived from ICD codes, particularly in the context of medical aid in dying. The 2023 study finds significant discrepancies and limitations in the current use of ICD codes for recording death causes, suggesting that these statistics may not provide accurate or reliable data for policy-making or healthcare improvements in cases of medically assisted dying especially also in multimorbid patients.


  • Meinlschmidt G, Guemghar S, Roemmel N, Battegay E, Hunziker S, Schaefert R. Depressive symptoms, but not anxiety, predict subsequent diagnosis of Coronavirus disease 19: a national cohort study. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci. 2022
    This national cohort study in Great Britain explores the predictive value of depressive symptoms and anxiety for subsequent diagnosis of COVID-19. The findings suggest that individuals exhibiting depressive symptoms, however not those suffering from anxiety, are more likely to be diagnosed with COVID-19, emphasizing the need to consider mental health in public health surveillance and response strategies during pandemics.

  • Bernabeu-Wittel M, Holecki M, Tuttolomondo A, Chudek J, Battegay E; EFIM Multimorbidity Working Group. Perspectives of European internists on multimorbidity. A multinational survey. Eur J Intern Med. 2022
    The Multimorbidity Working Group of the European Federation of Internal Medicine conducted a multinational survey among European internists to gather perspectives on managing patients with multimorbidity. The study highlights challenges and substantial deficits faced by healthcare providers in their education and organization in dealing with multimorbid patients. The study and authors strongly emphasize the increasing need for tailored strategies to improve care for this growing and costly multmorbid patient population.

  • Siebenhüner K, Blaser J, Nowak A, Cheetham M, Mueller BU, Battegay E, Beeler PE. Comorbidities Associated with Worse Outcomes Among Inpatients Admitted for Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding. Dig Dis Sci. 2022
    This research focuses on the outcomes of inpatients admitted with acute gastrointestinal bleeding and how comorbidities impact their clinical outcomes. Thus, patients with multiple comorbidities experience worse outcomes, which underscores the importance of comprehensive patient management and the potential need for specialized care protocols for such high-risk groups.


  • Marcar VL, Battegay E, Schmidt D, Cheetham M. Parallel processing in human visual cortex revealed through the influence of their neural responses on the visual evoked potential. Vision Res. 2022
    This study provides insights into how different neural responses within the visual cortex contribute to the processing of visual stimuli, enhancing our understanding of both normal and impaired visual processing.

  • Lai FTT, Beeler PE, Yip BHK, Cheetham M, Chau PYK, Chung RY, Wong ELY, Yeoh EK, Battegay E, Wong SYS. Comparing Multimorbidity Patterns Among Discharged Middle-Aged and Older Inpatients Between Hong Kong and Zurich: A Hierarchical Agglomerative Clustering Analysis of Routine Hospital Records. Front Med (Lausanne). 2021
    This study uses hierarchical agglomerative clustering to analyze multimorbidity patterns among middle-aged and older inpatients in Hong Kong and Zurich based on routine hospital records. The study  compares the prevalence and types of multimorbidity in these distinct geographical and cultural settings, offering valuable insights for healthcare planning and resource allocation in aging populations.

Original Publications Submitted

  • Känel R, Neuner-Jehle S, Kressig RW, Guessous I, Krayenbühl PA, Zimmerli L Angelilo-Scherer A, Keller T, Elzner C, Pauls K, Morin N, Battegay E. Effects of a novel structured differential diagnosis aid for managing patients with unexplained fatigue in the primary care setting. A prospective randomized, controlled, and multicentre pilot study in primary care. Submitted.


  • Ruckstuhl MM, Bischof E, Blatch D, Buhayer A, Goldhahn J, Battegay E, Tichelli A, Ewald CY. Translational longevity medicine: a Swiss perspective in an ageing country. Swiss Med Wkly. 2023
    This is a comprehensive review on the state of translational longevity medicine in Switzerland, particularly in the context of an aging population. This article discusses the challenges and opportunities in applying research findings from basic science to enhance the health span, focusing on the need for healthcare systems to adapt to the increasing longevity and therefore increasing prevalence of multimorbidity of the population.

  • Bernabeu-Wittel M, Para O, Voicehovska J, Gómez-Huelgas R, Václavík J, Battegay E, Holecki M, van Munster BC; EFIM Multimorbidity Working Group. Competences of internal medicine specialists for the management of patients with multimorbidity. EFIM multimorbidity working group position paper. Eur J Intern Med. 2023
    This position paper of the EFIM Multimorbidity Working Group discusses the essential competencies required by internal medicine specialists to manage patients with multimorbidity. The paper advocates a holistic and integrated approach to patient care, emphasizing the need for training programs to include comprehensive strategies and operations that address the multifaceted needs pg multimorbid patients. 
  • Güth U, Weitkunat R, McMillan S, Schneeberger AR, Battegay E. When the cause of death does not exist: time for the WHO to close the ICD classification gap for Medical Aid in Dying. E Clinical Medicine. 2023
    The current International Classification of Diseases (ICD) system used by the WHO fails to adequately account for deaths due to Medical Aid in Dying (MAID), for example in patients or persons with multimorbidity. This review calls for urgent reforms in the ICD classification to ensure that MAID is appropriately and accurately documented. 


  • Hirsch MC, Battegay E, Vogelmeier C. Künstliche Intelligenz: Was macht gute Medizin aus? [Artificial intelligence: What constitutes good medicine?]. Inn Med (Heidelb). 2023
    In this editorial, Hirsch, Battegay, and Vogelmeier explore the implications of artificial intelligence (AI) in medicine, particularly questioning what defines quality care in the context of increasing AI integration. The authors discuss both the potential enhancements AI can bring to medical diagnostics and patient management, as well as the ethical concerns and the need for maintaining a human-centric approach in healthcare. They emphasize the importance of balancing technology with the intrinsic values of human touch and clinical judgment.

  • Güth U, McMillan S, Battegay E. Medical Aid in Dying: Europe's Urgent Medico-Ethical Challenge. Int J Public Health. 2023
    This editorial by Güth, McMillan, and Battegay addresses the pressing ethical and medical challenges posed by Medical Aid in Dying (MAID) across Europe. The authors argue for the need to develop consistent, compassionate, and ethically sound medical guidance that respects patient autonomy while ensuring responsible medical practice. They highlight the urgency of this issue as European countries grapple with differing legal, cultural, and ethical perspectives on end-of-life care in increasingly multimorbid patients.

Areas at a glance


Our research combines the knowledge and perspectives of medical clinicians from different areas of expertise, data scientists, and psychologists.

Staff & Open positions

Our interdisciplinary team of international medical experts specializes in various aspects of multimorbidity and advises on the treatment of comorbidities.


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